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Wednesday 29 January 2020

PPAP (Production Part Approval Process)

What is PPAP?

  •  PPAP stands for “Production Part Approval Process”
  • Standard wont to formally reduce risks prior to product or service release, during a team oriented manner using well established tools and techniques
  • "Originally founded in 1993 by AIAG (Auto Industry Action 
    Group) with Wide feedback -Ford, Chrysler, and GM."
  •  AIAG’s 4th edition is effective since June 1st, 2006.
  •  PPAP has now spread to several different industries beyond automotive.

When is PPAP required ?

  •  New part/product
  • Engineering change(s)
  • Tooling: transfer, replacement, refurbishment, or additional tooling
  •  Correction of discrepancy
  •  Tooling inactive for quite one year (12 months)
  •  Change to optional construction or material
  • Sub-supplier or material source change
  •  Change partially processing
  •  Parts produced at replacement or additional location

PPAP Benefits:

  •  Forces formal part conformance and approval
  •  Ensures formal quality planning
  •  Helps to take care of design integrity
  •  Identifies issues early for resolution
  •  Reduces warranty charges and prevents costs due to poor quality
  •  Assists with managing supplier changes
  •  Prevents use of unapproved and nonconforming parts
  •  Identifies suppliers that require more development
  •  Improves the general quality of the merchandise & customer satisfaction

PPAP Submission Levels

Level 1-Only warrant (and an Appearance Approval Report 
for approved appearance items) submitted to the Customer. 
Level 2-Warrant with customer-submitted product 
samples and minimal supporting data. 
Level 3-Warrant with samples of the 
product and complete customer supporting data submitted. 
Level 4-Warrant and 
other Customer-defined requirements.
Level 5-Warrant with samples of products and full supporting 
data checked at the production location of the company.

PPAP Elements:

18 elements used in PPAP submission

1. Part Submission Warrant (PSW):

This is the shape that summarizes the entire PPAP package.
This form demonstrates the reason for submission (design adjustment, annual revalidation, 
etc.) and  hence the amount of documentation submitted to the client
. There's a neighborhood that asks for "results meeting all drawing and specification requirements: yes/no" refers to the entire package. If there'sany deviations the supplier should note on the warrant or inform that PPAP can't be submitted.

2. Design Records & Bubbled part print(s):

A copy of the drawing. If the customer is design responsible this is often a replica customer drawing that's sent alongside the acquisition Order (PO). If supplier is design responsible this is often a  released drawing in supplier's release system.

3. Authorized Engineering Change Documentation:

paper providing the 
thorough explanation of the alteration.
 Usually this document is named "Engineering Change Notice", but it's going to be covered by the customer PO or theother engineering authorization.

4. Customer Engineering Approvals:

This approval is usually the Engineering trial with production elements accomplished at the client plant. A ''brief deviation'' generally is required to ship parts to customer before PPAP. Customer may additionally require other ''Engineering Approvals''.

5. Design FMEA:

copy of the Failure Mode Impact Analysis (DFMEA) 
planning procedure, checked and signed-off by both supplier and customer. 
If customer is responsible for design, customer will 
not normally share this document with the supplier.
 However, the list of all critical or high impact product characteristics should be shared with the supplier,in oder that they are often addressed on the PFMEA and Control Plan.

6. Process Flow Diagrams:

A copy of the method Flow, indicating all steps and sequence within the manufacturing process, including incoming components.

7. Process FMEA:

A copy of the method Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA), reviewed and signed-off by supplier and customer. The PFMEA follows the method Flow steps, and indicate "what could go wrong" during the fabrication and assembly of every component.

8. Control Plan:

copy of the Control Plan 
which supplier and customer reviewed and signed-off. 
The Control Plan follows the steps of PFMEA and offers more information about how 

the "potential problems" are reviewed in the incoming quality, assembly process, or finished product inspections.

9. Measurement System Analysis :

MSA typically includes the Gage R&R for the critical or high impact characteristics, 
and is calibrated confirmation that gauges are used to calculate these characteristics.

10. Dimensional Results:

A list of each dimension noted on the ballooned drawing. This list shows the merchandise characteristic, specification, the measurement results and therefore the assessment showing if this dimension is "OK" or "not OK". 
minimum of parts per 
product process combination is usually stated. 

11. Material Test Results & Performance Test Results:

A summary of each test performed on the part. 
Usually, this description is on kind of DVP&R (Design Verification Plan and Report), which lists each 
individual test, when it was done, the criteria, the outcomes and thus the pass fail evaluation.

 If there's  an Engineering Specification, usually it is noted on the print. The DVP&R shall be reviewed and signed off by both customer and supplier engineering groups. The standard engineer will search for a customer signature on this document.
Additionally, as stated on the document, this section 
lists all material certifications (steel, plastics, plating, etc.)
 The fabric certification shall show compliance to the precise turn the print.

12. Initial Process Study (Cpk) Capability Studies:

Usually this section shows all Statistical Process Control charts affecting the foremost critical characteristics. 
The aim is to show that critical processes have 
stable variability which runs close to the intended par value.

13. Qualified Laboratory Documentation:

Copy of all laboratory certifications recorded by 
the laboratories which carried out the tests.

14. Appearance Approval Report:

A copy of the AAI (Appearance Approval Inspection) form signed by the client. Applicable for components affecting appearance only.

15. Sample Product Parts:

A sample from an equivalent lot of initial production run. The PPAP package usually shows an image sample and where it's kept (customer or supplier).

16. Master Samples:

A sample signed off by customer and supplier, that sometimes is employed to coach operators on subjective inspections like visual or for noise.

17. Checking aids

When there are special tools for checking parts, this section shows an image of the tool and calibration records, including dimensional report of the tool.

18. Customer specific requirements:

Growing customer can be expected to 
have different specifications on the PPAP package. 
It is a safe idea to ask the customer for 
expectations of PPAP before they even quot for a job. 
OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) specifications for North America 

car makers are listed on the IATF web site.

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